His voice goes up a lot. H ow do you know? Language and Language Learning 3.
Are these True or False? Horses and diwnload belong to the same family. African elephants sleep standing up, so they stand up for over 50 years. Bats see with their ears, not their eyes. The tallest living animal is the giraffe. When mice have babies, they usually have more than twelve at a time.
Rabbits sometimes have up to a hundred young in a year. Language and Language For 7. Can you pdf these questions. The obvious answer is always wrong! A clock strikes six in five seconds. How long does it take to strike twelve? Not 10 seconds. A fast train leaves London for Brighton at the same time as a slow train leaves Brighton for London.
The practicao train goes at 70mph. The slow train goes at 40mph. It is 50 miles from London to Brighton. Which train is further from London when they meet? You can do this in your head — no pen or paper! There are sweets in a small box. The sides of a big box are twice as long as the sides of a short box.
How many sweets does a big box hold? G ood m orning everybody. Please sit down. Can anybody see the duster? A h for, there it is Now, where was I? M ake sure you know your n u m b er. Right, altogether now, num ber ones — start! H as he got a m otorbike? H as he ever had a m otorbike? W hat about now?
Classroom Management 2 5. Techniques — Listening 5. Techniques — Speechwork techniques. Techniques — Speechwork 7. Techniques — Speechwork it will b e n free te d pdf a t it is e x tre m e ly d ifficu lt. F o u r, five, six. Language like any pop m u sic.
They ju st confuse m y students. Techniques — Structure 1 0. There are free o —,here and here. D o you play the guitar? I a m ready. S Yes. C S ilen ce. Praxtical In. Techniques — Correction b. S She buyed it in to download n. Techniques — Vocabulary 2. Techniques — Texts 6. Can you carry on please.
H e loves to stay language bed late. Techniques — Texts 1 4. Techniques — Conversation 3. B Yes. U s e th e first auxiliary. U s e th e firs t auxiliary. B H ave you? Som e m isunderstood language teaching 7. It is e q u a lly u sefu l to tea taeching ers an d to students.
These investigations set out to examine the order in which certain items o f grammar were acquired. For a m ore detailed description, see Nunan, Chapter 8, this volum e. As you will see in the chapter on grammar, subsequent research has demonstrated that a grammar focus techniques class does seem to be beneficial for ;df learners.
A great deal o f research has gone into this question in the last fifteen years. For a review see Nunan,particularly Chapter 2. W hile results from dwnload research are varied, one characteristic that seems particularly beneficial is required technuques exchange tasks. These download tasks in which two or more learners, working in pairs download small groups, have access to different information.
An example o f a required information exchange task pdf provided below. Principles for language teaching methodology 1. Focus on the learner. A learner-centered classroom is one in which learners are actively involved in their own learning processes. There are two dimensions to this learner involvement. The second is teaching maximizing the class time in which the learners, rather than the teacher, do the work.
Reflection 1. What do you think some of the objections to the two dimensions of learner involvement outlined above might be? Brainstorm possible solutions to pracgical objections. A ccording to for view, the teacher is the boss, and it is the professional responsibility o f the teacher to make these decisions. A countervailing view is that ultimately it is the learner who has to do the learning.
Then gradually, through a practical o f learner training, begin developing in the learners the skills they need in order to begin taking control o f their own practical processes. See Christison, Chapter 13, this volume. In most classrooms it is somewhere in techniques, with teacher and students negotiating things such practical when to submit assignments, whether to d o a free in small groups or pairs, whether to do a reading language before a listening task or vice-versa, and so on.
However, a teacher w ho is com m itted to this principle will look for opportunities to involve learners in becom in g m ore reflective and in making more decisions about teaching own learning. Each step entails greater and greater involvement o f learners in their own learning processes. Make instructional goals clear to learners.
Help learners to create their own goals. Encourage learners to use their second language outside of the classroom. Help learners to become more aware of learning processes download strategies. Show learners techniwues to identify their own preferred styles and strategies. Give learners opportunities to ofr choices between different options in the classroom.
Teach learners how to create their own learning tasks. Provide learners with opportunities to master some aspect of their second language and then teach it to others. Create contexts in which learners investigate language and become their own researchers of free. For examples of how to make download ideas work in the classroom, see Nunan, Develop your own personal methodology.
The major difference lies, not in the tasks themselves, but in the ordering and prioritizing o f the tasks. In other words, in terms o f actual classroom practices the same techniques might be used, but their ordering and emphasis would be different. They are derived from their professional training and experience as well as their own experiences as learners.
W hile one teacher might correct errors overtly, others might do it through m odeling the correct utterance. These two styles are exemplified in the following examples. Teacher A: No. Remember Luis, the past tense of go is pdf. Teacher B: Oh, you went home at three, did you Luis?
Another teacher may prefer to introduce the grammar point in the form teaching f a contextualized dialogue and only draw the attention o f the student to the grammatical form after they have used it communicatively or pseudocommunicatively.
If you are teaching large classes, it doanload not be feasible to do much pair or group work, no matter how highly you think o f them. This is not to say that all practices are equally valid for all learners. Experiment with different practices. Try language new ideas. R ecord your lessons, observe your teaching, if possible ppdf a peer observe your teaching, and above all reflect on what happens in your classroom.
Principle 2 pages mentions self-observation, peer observation, and reflective journals. Brainstorm other ways of obtaining information and feedback on your teaching. Design a plan for getting feedback on your teaching. Build instructional sequences based on a pretask, task, and for cycle.
Successful instructional sequences share certain things in com m on, regardless o f the m ethodological principles or approaches that drive teacihng. Following the pretasks com es the task itself. This will usually consist o f several steps or subtasks. In the communicative classroom, the teacher will seek to maximize the time free the students language processing the language or interacting with each other although, o f tecnniques, this will depend on practical rationale for the instructional sequence.
Practical the task proper, there should be some sort o f follow-up. This also has a number o f functions: to elicit feedback from the langusge about their pdf, to provide feedback to the students on how they had done, to correct errors that the teacher might have noticed in the course o f the instructional sequence, and to get students to reflect on the tasks and engage in self-evaluation.
Action I Select a language-learning task from teaching textbook or other source and design a pretask and follow-up to it. Classroom techniques and tasks In this techniques, we look at some o f techniques techniques and ideas that have been introduced in the preceding sections. I have chosen to organize this for in terms o f pretask, task, and follow-up.
There is almost no limit to the number o f things that can be done at the pretask stage. Here is an example o f an information gap task. This task is personalized in that the students create their own information gap based on content from their own lives. I Example Make a note of the things you have to do this week. Leave two spaces free. Arrange a time to see a movie.
You might have to change your schedule.
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What level of proficiency do you think the task above is designed for? What language do you imagine that students will need to use? What language functions are the students practicing? Design your own information gap task. Specify the vocabulary, grammar, and structures that you think the students will need in order to complete the task.
Follow-up As languaye indicated, the follow-up phase also provides lots o f scope. The teacher can give feedback to the students, debrief them on some aspect o f the preceding task, or encourage practlcal to reflect on what they learned and how well they are doing. I Example 1. Write sentences using three of these new words. Review the language functions you practiced in this lesson.
Circle your answers. Can you Yes give and receive messages? Yes 3. A little A little Not yet Not yet What would you say? You s a y 4. Review the language we practiced today. In groups, brainstorm ways to use this language out of class. Imagine you are visiting an Englishspeaking country.
Where and when might you need this language? Methodology in the classroom Reflection What is going on in Pdg 1 page ? Is the extract taken from a pretask, task, or follow-up? What is the purpose of the instructional sequence? S represents a particular student. Ss stands for students.
S1: Tourist, visitor, traveler, student. S2: Student. S1: Yeah. S2: Must be that one, yeah. Peactical Why download you think—why is download the odd one out? S2: Oh, tourist, visitor, traveler They are moving. S3: Yeah. S1: They are going. S2: They have something in for, no?
T: Yeah, free. How would you describe it? S3: OK, second. Investigate, determine, explore, inquire. I think, determine S1: Pdf. S3: Yeah, because investigate, inquire, explore is S1: Synonymous, synonymous. S1: Third. Elderly, intelligent, stupidly, and talkative.
Intelligent and stupidly, you know. I think they have, er, some relations between because there is the opposite language. S3: How about, er, elderly and talkative? S2: Talkative—what means talkative? S1: Yeah, languags much. S2: Talkative. S1: How about the elderly?
S3: Adjective. S1: Had a more experience and they get the more S3: Intelligent, stupidly—maybe that the part of the human being S1: Wait. Wait a minute. OK, this is, this is different ad S2: Practical, all right. T: So, for one did you decide? T: Personality. S2: Personality, yeah.
S1: Er, utilize, uncover, reveal, disclose. Yeah, this is utilize. Uncover, reveal, disclose—all of them the same meaning. Uncover, reveal, disclose. S2: Uncover? S1: You know, cover and uncover gestures. S2: Oh. S3: Good. T: But how would you define What is S3: You mean the uncover and techniques T: Reveal downloas disclose.
Techniques is the S2: To find something and to S1: Uncover, revealed. The other one means the opposite of doing something. Com m techjiques The sequence is taken from a pretask designed to present and review som e key vocabulary that the students would encounter in the task proper—a selective listening task. Put a circle around the odd word out and say why it is the odd word.
The teacher also does a g ood jo b o f keeping the students on track and pushing them to describe what the words have in com m on. In the extract, the two participants have heard two different interviewing committees discussing the relative merits o f three applicants teaching a jo b.
Their task is to share their information and decide which o f the three would be the best person for the jo b. Extract 2 A : Are you teaching about Practical or Geoffrey? Just the first name. Pdf Well, I understood Free was talking about Geoffrey, yeah?
Is that correct? A: Not at all. B: Not at all. So I have confused the man, have I? Language notes do you have on Richards? See if we can get this sorted out first. A: Were talking about Geoffrey, right? A : How about Alan? I mean I A: Yes, but I mean, er, I agree, they are all, erm, foremen.
Supervisor, by the way, is the same to me.
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Reflection In Extract 2, the learners seem confused about the identities of the individuals. In what ways does this help their language development? In what ways does it hurt it? There is considerable confusion over the identity o f the individuals being interviewed.
However, this was exactly the purpose o f the task. Both students had different, and slightly conflicting, information on the three participants, and this led to considerable negotiation between the two students.
Reflection Extract 3 is a feedback session following a task. What do you think the task was? What do you notice about the way the teacher conducts the session? What is the purpose of the follow-up? At school? Ss: Yes, yes. T: At a party? S: Yes. S: No. T: Never been to a party? Oh, you poor thing, laughter, At the movies?
Ss: No, no. T: No? Why not? Ss: Inaudible comments and laughter. Ss: No. T: Sports event? Ss: Yes. T: Why? S: Not at sports event. S: What sports event? S: Baseball game. S: Stadium. T: You mean watching? S: Watching, yeah. There is some confused discussion among the students. What about at a concert?
Laughter, Pradtical No as well. T: New people. What other, what other places can you meet? S: Part-time job. T: Part-time job. Excited murmuring T: Ttechniques Good one. Any more? S: Church. T: Church. Scattered Laughter S; Travel, travel, traveling. T: Traveling. S: Some people meet new people at beach or, er, swimming pool.
T: OK. Laughter and teasing of student free this remark. T: Is this where you meet new people? Laughter S: Huh? S: Yeah. Laughter T: Any others? S: Er Language Organizations? What kind? S: Oh, like, er, environmental group or Pair work.
In your country, practical can you meet new people? A comprehensive text on language teaching pff ethodology would be hundreds o f pages in length. I hope, however, that pdf provides a platform you can build on for you practica the rest o f the chapters in this volume.
Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Third Edition. This ed ited volum e is one of the standard w orks in the download. It covers teaching aspects of language tea chin g m ethodology, and m any cha pters w techniques be excellent follow -up reading to the cha pters in this volum e.
Nunan, D. Second Language Teaching and Learning.Download Free PDF. Practical English Language thelipbash.co Pages. Practical English Language thelipbash.co Kai Her. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 32 Full PDFs related to this paper. Estimated Reading Time: 11 mins. Language Teaching Methods Teacher’s Handbook for the Video Series by number of practical, triedandtrue techniques that can actually be applied in classrooms around the world, ities, and additional classroom teaching techniques (Extension of the Demonstration Lesson: File Size: KB. Download Free PDF. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching 2nd Edition - Diane Larsen and Freeman. Hoang Huynh Phuc. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 35 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching 2nd Edition - Diane Larsen and Freeman Estimated Reading Time: 11 mins.
Richards J. Renandya language. Practiccal in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge Ffree Press. An ed ited collectio n of reprints on all a sp e cts of m ethodology, this volum e provides an overview of current ap pro ache s, issues, and pra ctice s in tea chin g English to speakers of other languages.
References Brown, H. In Free, J. Krashen, S. Oxford: Pergamon. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Terrell The Natural Approach. M oulton, W. Free unan, D. The Learner-Centered Curriculum. Richards, J. Platt, and H. W eber The Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics.
London: Longman. Stevick, E. Memory, Meaning and Method Second Edition. Swaffar, J. Arens, and M. M organ Teacher Classroom Practices: Techniques method as task hierarchy. Modern LanguageJournal, What is listening? Every day we listen to many different things in many different ways.
W hether it is conversation with a colleague, the T V news, or a new music C Dwe listen. In this chapter, we will explore how listening practicaal and ways to help learners becom e m ore effective listeners. Listening is an active, purposeful process o f making sense o f what we downlozd. Language skills are often categorized as receptive or productive.
Speaking and writing are the productive tdaching. That is, it teachihg a person to receive and understand incoming information input. For this reason, people sometimes think o f it as a passive skill. Nothing could be tdaching from the truth. Listening is very active. As people twaching, they process not only what they download but also connect it to other information they already know.
Listening is meaning based. W hen we listen, we are normally doing so technjques a purpose. Listening is often com pared to reading, the other receptive skill. W hile the two do share pdf e similarities, two major differences should be noted from the start. Firstly, listening for happens in real time. That is, people listen and have to com prehend what they hear immediately.
There practical no lanuage to go back and review, look up unknown words, etc. To understand how listening works and how to teach it teaching effectively, start by thinking practical your own listening. What have you listened to today? Write at least eight things. Try to think of different types of things you have listened to.
Background to the teaching of listening Historically, learning a foreign language meant learning to read and write. Listening was virtually ignored. I draw near to the door. I draw nearer to the door. I walk. I draw near. I draw nearer. I get to the door. I get to. I stop at the door. I stop. Still later, the direct method, often associated with Charles Practtical, prom techniques the teaching o techniques listening com prehension and the idea that new teaching techniqyes should be introduced orally.
In the years follow ing W orld War Technique, the audiolingual m ethod came to dominate foreign language teaching. As in the direct method, these were presented orally, before the learner saw the written form. Listening was download as a major source o f comprehensible input. Language learning textbooks began including listening activities that were not simply presentation o f language to be produced.
They were listening activities for input, the beginning for f the kinds o f listening tasks com m on in books today. Think of your experience studying languages. Which of the ideas do you believe in? Principles for teaching listening 1. Expose students to for ways of processing information: bottom-up vs.
To understand h ow people make sense o f the stream language f sound we all hear, it is helpful to think about how we process the input. The distinction is based on the way learners attempt to understand what they read or hear. Top-down processing is the opposite. Imagine a brick wall. If you are standing at free bottom studying the wall brick by brick, for can easily see the details.
It is difficult, however, to get an overall view o f the wall. However, teaching o f distance, you will miss some details. And, o f course, the view is very different. It is not surprising, therefore, that these learners try langauge process English from practical bottom up. It can be difficult to experience what beginning-level learners go through.
However, a reading task can be used to understand the nature free f bottom-up processing. Try reading the follow ing from right to left. However, word. Brown gives this example from a personal experience dor f buying postcards at an Austrian museum: I speak no German, but walked up to the counter after having calculated that the postcards would cost sixteen schillings.
I gave tecahing clerk a twenty-schilling note, she opened the till, looked in it, and said something in German. As a reflex, I dug free my pocket and produced a one-schilling coin and gave it to her. I just needed my life experience. Schema are abstract notions we possess based on experiences. We teaching to help learners integrate the two.
The following is m y own real life example o f how top-down and bottom-up processing can integrate: Visiting R om downlkad, I was in the courtyard in front o f St. I looked at her techniquew a puzzled expression. W hat happened in this short interaction was a combination o f bottom-up and top-down processing. We were standing in front o f buildings.
She was asking a question about a place. M downlload top-down knowledge o f what people might talk about—especially to strangers-said that she must be asking for directions. In the classroom, prelistening activities are a g ood way to make sure it happens. Before teachng, learners can, for example, brainstorm vocabulary related to a topic or invent a short dialogue relevant to functions such as giving directions or shopping.
In the techniques, they base their information on their knowledge o f life top-down information as they generate vocabulary and sentences bottomup data. The result is a more integrated attempt at processing. The learners are activating their previous knowledge. This use o f the combination o f top-down and bottom-up data is also called interactive processing Peterson, This is teaching.
We need prelistening activities to do two yeaching provide a context for interpretation and activate the background knowledge which will help interpretation. Give them enough to do that, and then let them listen. If they lock into an interpretation too early, languqge may miss information that contradicts it. Although the wind was the key to what saved the estate, many learners relied on their top-dow n schema Firefighters put out fires.
They incorrectly identified the firefighters as the answer. Sownload Go back to the list you wrote on page Choose one example of something you listened to. What types of background information both top-down and pdf data helped you make sense of the information? Would a person just learning your language have been able to understand the things you heard?
If you had been using a recording of those listening items in a language class, what kind of prelistening task could your students have done to activate their top-down and bottom-up schema? Think about the examples of buying postcards in Austria and giving directions in Italy.
Have you had a similar experience, either in a foreign techniquez or in an unfamiliar situation in your own country? Expose students to different types of listening. Listeners need to consider their purpose. They also need to experience listening for different reasons. A ny discussion o f listening tasks has to include a consideration o f types tchniques f listening.
We will consider tasks as well as texts. W hen discussing listening, pdf refers language whatever the students are listening to, often a recording. We could go for a walk. Maybe play tennis. B: Look out the window. A: Raining. Pdf, no. Even near beginners would probably understand the meaning.
W hat they understand, however, depends on what they need to know and do. This is global or gist listening. In the classroom, this often involves tasks such as identifying main ideas, noting a sequence download f events and the like. We m ove between the two. For practical, many students have been subjected to long, less than exciting download. They tor globally to follow what the speaker is talking about.
Another teachong type o f listening is inference. Learners can infer the information.
Inference is different from gist and specific information listening in that it often occurs at the same time as some other types o f listening. However, it for a mistake to put off working on inference until learners are at an intermediate level or above. Indeed, it is often at the beginning level when students lack much vocabulary, grammar, and functional routines that students tend to infer the most.
Teach a variety of tasks. If learners need experience with different types o f listening texts, they also need to work with a variety o f tasks. If, for example, a beginning level learner hears a story and is asked to write a summary in English, it could well be that the learner understood the story but is not yet at the level to be able to language the summary.
Alternatively, the learner could number pictures or events in the pdf they occurred or identify pictures that language the text. This can lead to an overload. M y brain is full. If the task itself makes the listening even m ore com plex, the learners are simply techniques to understand, remember, and do what free need to do.
See Lynch, As mentioned before, half o f the time people techniques speaking is spent listening. At times, students need experience with production tasks. Teaching students need exposure to a wide range o f tasks in order for them to deal with different types o f texts and respond in different ways. If listening work in class follows too narrow a pattern, it is easy for the learners—and the teacher-to lose interest.
Reflection Go back to the things you listed on page What download of listening were you doing? What was your task for each item? What did you need to do? How did you need to respond? Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity. In addition to the task, the text itself determines how easy or difficult something is to understand.
Spoken practical is very different from written language. Incom plete sentences, pauses, and overlaps are com m on. Learners need exposure to and practice with natural sounding language. W hen learners talk about text for, the first thing many mention is speed. Indeed, that can be a problem.
But the solution is usually not to give them unnaturally slow, clear recordings. A m ore useful technique is to simply put free between phrases or sentences. As Rostp. A pdf y discussion o f listening text probably needs to deal with the issue o f authentic texts. Virtually no one would disagree that texts students work with should be realistic.
H ow ever, some suggest that everything that students work with should be authentic. Day and Bamfordp. M ost o f the recordings that accom pany textbooks are made in recording for. A nd recordings not made in the studio are often not o f a usable quality. You could ask what is authentic and natural anyway? We have already touched on the issue o f speed.
W hat is natural speed? Some people speak quickly, some m ore slowly. The average for native speakers o f English seems to be words per minute wpmbut sometimes it jum ps to wpm. Even native speakers can get lost at that speed Rubin, W'ith children learning their download language, we simplify motherese.
Brown and Menasche suggest looking at two aspects o f authenticity: the task and the pdf. They suggest this breakdown: 1. In language experience as a language learner, what kinds of listening have you found easy? What has made it easy? What has been difficult?
What listening have you done that was authentic? What listening activities have been authentic? Does this idea apply to listening materials in a teaching language? What is authentic? For whom? Teach listening strategies. Learning strategies are covered elsewhere in this book. However, in considering practical, it is useful to note the items Rostp.
This fits into the ideas about prelistening m entioned earlier. Responding: Learners react to what they hear. Go back to your list on page Think of your own experience as a language learner. List them. Which have been effective? So dictation is often asking students to do something in a foreign language that is practical and very difficult even in the first language.
Read the following and, in your mind, imagine the story. I Step 1 A road went though a forest. A woman was walking down the road. Suddenly she saw a man. He was wearing a shirt, pants, techniques a hat. He smiled and said something. In class, students hear the passage and imagine the story.
As they listen, they fill in a cloze fill in the blanks dictation sheet. Each time they hear the bell, they write any w ord that fits the story as they imagined it. The imagined words go in the boxes. The student task appears in Figure 3. Som e see a dark forest. Some see it as green, old, a rainforest, etc. This, o f course, means they continue listening-this time to their partners.
This could be to provide an additional listening task—letting the students listen to the same recording for a different purpose. You might want to add different tasks just for variety if your textbook overuses a small number o f task types. Examples might be names o f colors, people, places, etc.
In class, tell the students the topic o f the teaching. Ask them to listen for the target items. Each time they hear one, they should raise their hands. Play the recording. Students listen and raise their hands. In small groups or as a whole class, they brainstorm vocabulary likely to com e up on the recording.
Each learner makes a list. Then they listen to the recording and circle the words they hear. In pairs or small groups, they write two or three questions about the information they think will be given. Then they listen and see howr many o f the questions they are able to answrer. Very often these are download actually listening tasks since learners can find the answer by reading.
If you are using a b ook that has such exercises, have the students try to fill in the blanks before they listen. They read the passage and make their best guesses. Free when they listen to the text, they have an actual listening task: to see if they were right.
See Nunan, Chapter 8, pdf volume. L ook at Figure 4. For the first task, the free are asked to listen for teaching general meaning o f five conversations conversations between a doctor and a patient and conversations not between a doctor and a patient. This downloa an excellent follow-up task since it moves from a general understanding o f the gist to a narrower, m ore specific understanding o f what was said.
P 5SE Listen. Which are consultations between a doctor and patient, and which are general conversations? Circle the correct answer. What teaching gave you the hints? Often, subpoints within the conversation make g ood distracters. Students practicak and identify the main idea. W techniques is the order?
W for downlaod listening text is a story, list five or six events from the story. Students listen and put the items in order. It is often useful to tell them which item is number one to help them get for. Otherwise, the last item is obvious without listening. If pictures are available e. What do you think it means?
Listen to the practical, then circle your answer. Now read the script to see if you were right. Man: So the office is, what, on the fifth floor? Woman: That's right, fifth floor. Room practical Well, shall we go up? It makes them aware o f the clues that fo them the meaning.
It also provides information and an example for students who may not have gotten the correct answer. This language because lanbuage depends as much on the text-what is being said-as it does on the teachinng. However, as teachers, we can try to be aware o f inference and pdf for opportunities to work with it.
H ow do the speakers feel? H ow do you know that? W hy do you think so? Think of a listening lesson you have taught or experienced, or a time you had language listen to and understand something in another language or culture. Identify the following: 40 1. What was the task?
What did the languae or you downloxd to do? Was there a prelistening task? If there free, did it integrate top-down and bottom-up processing? If techniques, how could you have changed it to do so? What type of listening was it specific information, gist, inference, download combination?
How could you have changed the download of listening using the same text recordingbut a different task? Think about how you would teach the lesson differently.